EMISSIONS CONTROL SYSTEM
Both The 6.7L Power Stroke diesel and 6.6L Duramax diesel engines meet strict Federally mandated emissions regulations by means of a sophisticated network of inter-laced emission control devices. These include a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), diesel particulate filter (DPF), exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system, and selective cata-lytic reduction (SCR) process. The SCR system requires the use of diesel exhaust fluid (DEF), a urea based solution that is used to combat NOx emissions by means of a reduction reaction. Various sensors are employed to monitor the condition of the emission control system and control certain processes.
Nitrous oxides, typically simplified as NOx, refers to the compounds nitrogen dioxide and nitric acid. These are not to be confused with nitrous oxide. NOx emissions contribute to the development of acid rain and smog. In addition, NOx may worsen preexisting medical conditions such as asthma and bronchitis. Nitrous oxides are produced when combustion occurs in the existence of nitrogen. Such is the case in the combustion of fuel in a diesel engine, as nitrogen gas is a naturally occurring element in atmospheric air.
Carbon monoxide is a colourless, odourless, highly toxic gas produced during the combustion process.
Carbon dioxide is formed as a result of the combustion of various hydrocarbon compounds that make up petroleum based fuels, including diesel. Carbon dioxide is classified as a “greenhouse gas” and CO2 emissions are believed to be a leading contributor of global warming.
Diesel Particulate Matter
Diesel particulate matter, often abbreviated DPM, refers to the emittance of soot following the combustion of diesel fuel. The WHO (World Health Organization) has classified diesel particulates as carcinogenic, meaning prolonged exposure may cause cancer. Additional health concerns, including difficulty breathing, have been linked to both short and long exposure to DPM.
EXHAUST GAS RECIRCULATION (EGR)
Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is a technique employed to reduce NOx emissions in combustion engines - the process is not specific to diesel engines. On an EGR equipped engine, a metered portion of exhaust gases are re circulated through the intake where they are mixed with the incoming air charge. While the concept may seem counterintuitive, NOx emissions are significantly reduced as a result of;
1) reduced oxygen concentration in the combustion chamber
2) lower combustion temperatures
The flow rate of exhaust gases in the recirculation circuit is controlled by the EGR valve. Its position is directed by the PCM and varies with various parameters, including load, speed, and manifold pressure. As exhaust gases are relatively hot after leaving the combustion chamber, they are cooled prior to recirculation by means of an EGR cooler. The EGR is a heat exchanger that uses engine coolant as a medium to remove heat from the hot exhaust gases. The 2011 - 2014 MY 6.7L Power Stroke is unique in that it has two dedicated cooling circuits. The primary or high temperature cooling circuit is reserved for engine cooling only. A secondary cooling circuit, referred to by Ford as the low temperature circuit, provides cooling to the EGR cooler, charge-air-cooler, transmission cooler, and fuel cooler. For the 2015 MY, the EGR cooler was moved to the high temperature cooling circut. Do in part to the effectiveness of the SCR system, the 6.7L Power Stroke uses a lower EGR duty cycle than previous generation engines and therefore the system is not inherently problematic.
Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR )
The SCR system is an after-treatment system, since it treats the vehicle’s exhaust after combustion. Here’s how it works:
1. A fine mist of DEF is injected into the exhaust while the engine is running.
2. The heat from the exhaust converts the DEF into ammonia.
3. When the ammonia, mixed with exhaust gases, reaches the SCR catalyst, the NOx emissions are broken down.
4. The Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) then captures soot to incinerate it during regeneration cycles.
5. Water vapor, nitrogen and reduced emissions exit the exhaust system.
Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF )
Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF) is a non-flammable fluid comprised of 33% ammonia-based urea and 67% purified water. DEF is used with diesel engine exhaust systems to reduce the amount of emissions produced by turning Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) into nitrogen and water vapour. DEF technology has a proven track record since it has been used in Europe for years.
Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC)
The diesel oxidation catalyst, or DOC, is essentially the diesel equivalent of a gasoline engine’s catalytic converter. As exhaust gases flow through the catalyst, residual hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide gas is converted into carbon dioxide gas and water vapor by means of an oxidation reaction.
Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF)
The diesel particulate filter, or DPF, filters particulate matter (soot) from the exhaust stream. Diesel particulate filters can capture up to 100% or particulate emissions, and are responsible for the absence of dingy black build up on the tailpipes of modern diesel engines. The PCM constantly monitors DPF loading, or the quantity of particulates captured in the filter. When the DPF is “full”, the filter is cleaned by a process known as regeneration. Under ideal conditions, removal of the DPF for manual cleaning should never be required.
Driving Range between Diesel Exhaust Fluid Tank Refills
The SCR system uses DEF at a rate of about 1 to 1.25% of the vehicle’s diesel fuel usage. A full tank of DEF provides a driving range of about 5,000 miles (8,000 kilometres). Since DEF usage is directly related to fuel consumption, range will vary depending on driving conditions.
Maintaining Diesel Exhaust Fluid Levels
The electronic on board warning system will provide a message alerting the driver when the DEF level is around 1000 km remaining range. Additional messages that must be acknowledged alert the driver at the 300 km, LOW and 0 km fluid ranges as the DEF tank gradually empties. The fluid level in the DEF tank must be maintained for the vehicle to run correctly. If the DEF tank is allowed to run empty, the system will alert the driver. If fluid is not added at the next vehicle start, the vehicle speed will be limited to 88 km and ultimately to 6 km in accordance with federal and state requirements.
Purchasing Diesel Exhaust Fluid
DEF, more commonly known as ADBLUE is available from Truck servicing outlets and some automotive parts stores in 10 or 20 litre containers. You can also purchase AD-BLUE from the bowser at any large service stations and truck stops.
Filling Diesel Exhaust Fluid
In the Ford F-series trucks, the DEF filler point is located next to the diesel filler point in-side the fuel flap on the side of the vehicle. The DEF has a blue filler cap. On the Chevrolet or GMC vehicles, the filler neck is located under the bonnet. The blue filler cap can be found at the drivers side rear of the engine bay. When filling with a bottle, you may like to ensure that you have a step, long neck funnel and use only 10 litre containers to make the job as easy as possible. Performax also includes the filling of your DEF at every service which will usually carry a vehicle through to the next service just depending on the usage and driving conditions.
Storing Diesel Exhaust Fluid
DEF shelf life is dependent on the conditions under which it is stored. It should be stored out of direct sunlight using the diagram below as a guide for temperatures and the associated shelf life expectancy. It is not recommended to store DEF as fluid that has exceeded its shelf life or “gone off” will cause problems within the vehicles emission system and cause the vehicle to be thrown into LIMP mode due to the poor quality of fluid. It is usually best to fill your DEF at large truck stops where it is stored in a refrigerated environment and there is a high turnover of large trucks who all use DEF too. This usually ensures you are getting the best quality fluid available Any damage to systems due to the use of incorrect or contaminated DEF is not eligible to be covered under Warranty. If your vehicle is to be stored and not driven for an extended period of time we suggest that a minimal amount of DEF in the system. When driving the vehicle for the first time fresh DEF should added.
Regeneration Process (Regen, Burn)
Regeneration is the process in which accumulated particulate matter is burned off in the DPF. Since diesel soot is comprised of partially combusted hydrocarbons they can be further combusted, at which point the resulting gases are expelled through the tailpipe and into the atmosphere. In order for regeneration to occur, the exhaust gas temperature must be increased to the point that particulates in the filter combust. This temperature is typically between 950° and 1050° F. The three regeneration strategies are passive, active, and manual. Regeneration may also be referred to as “burn”, or just simply “regen”.
Passive regeneration is the naturally occurring regen strategy, requiring input from neither the driver nor engine control module. Passive regeneration occurs when operating conditions, most notably exhaust gas temperature, reach or exceed the minimum range in which regeneration can occur. Passive regen often occurs under relatively high loads at constant speed; long periods of highway driving while towing, for example. Passive regeneration rarely occurs with adequate incidence to completely unload a DPF, although it may reduce the frequency of initiated active regeneration cycles.
Active regeneration is the process by which the control module initiates a regeneration cycle. During this period, fuel is introduced into the exhaust stream where it combust, raising exhaust gas temperatures such that the burning of particulate matter in the filter is facilitated. The frequency in which active regen is initialized will depend on driving pat-terns - lengthy periods of idling and stop-and-go driving will require more frequent cleaning, while consistent highway driving will reduce DPF loading and negate the need for frequent active regeneration cycles. By nature of injecting raw diesel fuel into the exhaust stream instead of combusting it for means of propulsion, the active regeneration pro-cess significantly impacts fuel economy.
Manual or static regeneration is a regen strategy that can be initiated by a technician through the vehicle’s on-board diagnostic system. A manual regeneration is typically initiated in order to repair a malfunction of the system (i.e. Vehicle that failed to regen as needed).
Electronic on board warning system
There is no guessing involved when it comes to maintaining a correct DEF level with this system. An electronic on board warning system provides you with numerous warnings in the Driver Information Center (DIC) to help you maintain adequate DEF levels, alert you if the DEF quality is poor or if there are concerns with the system. See your owner’s manual supplement for a complete description of the electronic on board warning system and
its warning messages.
Adding DEF to an Empty or Low Tank
Always add at least 4 litres to release the vehicle from any speed limitation. Adding approximately 13 litres of DEF is recommended. Once the system is refilled, the system re-sets itself and a service visit is not required. It may take up to 30 seconds in park or several miles of driving to update the DEF level warning.
Maintaining DEF Quality
The quality of DEF in the tank must be maintained for the vehicle to run correctly. Care should be taken to prevent any contaminants from getting into the fluid. The electronic onboard warning system is designed to automatically monitor DEF quality. If poor-quality fluid is detected, the system will alert the driver. If poor-quality fluid is not replaced within 300 kilometres, the vehicle speed will be limited to 88 km per hour at the next vehicle start. If the system’s warnings continue to be ignored, vehicle speed will ultimately be limited to 8 km per hour.
System damage caused by using incorrect fluid is not eligible for warranty reimbursement. Care should be taken to avoid introducing any contaminants into the DEF tank or fluid. No modifications should be made to the exhaust system in the area between the engine and the Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF). Modification, tampering or removal of system voids warranty and is subject to hefty fines from the government if detected.
Performax International has been in the conversion industry for over 30 years and with that comes a lot of knowledge. We have tried to make the decision buying process a little bit easier for you by listing the answers to some of our frequently asked questions by clients. If there is a question you would like further information on or don't see the answer you need here please call our friendly sales team on 1800 737 367 they will happily assist.
What sort of warranty do you offer?
Performax International offers all their new vehicles with a full factory backed new car warranty that covers the vehicle for a period of 3 years or 100,000kms whichever comes first. We do not believe in nor do we offer aftermarket mechanical/insurance style policies. These policies refer owners to companies that do not understand how to repair the vehicles.
Who does your conversion?
Performax International is proud of the fact it is an Australian owned, Australian based Conversion Company employing Australian workers. The full conversion process takes place in our factory in Gympie, QLD. We are so proud of our operation, we invite customers to come and tour our factor.
Why are your vehicles so expensive, I can buy one for half that in America?
This is a common question. US pricing does not include their taxes, by the time you add all the options that Australians expect as a minimum standard, add freight within the US to get the docks, shipping, unloading and customs in Australia, exchange rates (33% on average) Australian taxes you are almost double the US Price. And we haven’t touched the vehicle yet. Australia has the toughest design rules in the World, to meet these standards we have to engineer the vehicles to certain levels, we have full time engineers on staff, there is often hundreds of thousands of dollars spent setting up to do a new model, we have to carry all warranty in Australia, we carry an extensive supply of parts, have fully trained technicians, and much much more to support these vehicles here. To fully appreciate what is involved, a factory tour is highly recommended.
Why is XYZ company selling their trucks cheaper than you?
Some companies like to do their engineering and conversion work overseas in third world countries, which enables them to sell at a lower price in Australia. Performax International is based in Australia as are our staff and our research and development centre. Not only does it give you piece of mind knowing you are supporting an Australian company, you know if something goes wrong, the experts are here where you can access them. Very expensive to send a faulty vehicle back overseas!
I want to import my own car, can you help me?
Performax International holds several different licenses, some of which allow a customer to import their own vehicle for conversion. There are a several rules that govern the private import of a vehicle, and it is essential you talk to someone that is qualified to advise you on what must be done. Not seeking expert help can result in very costly fines and holding fees from customs, and possible destruction of the vehicle.
Can I drive my truck on a car license?
This can vary depending on the state the vehicle is to be registered in, and the category of vehicle you are buying. Please ask our sales team to help you with the appropriate information here.
How much can I carry?
We can sell you a truck with carrying capacities over 2 tonne BUT; This question is dependent on a lot of factors, one being whether or not you wish to drive the truck on a car license. As with all vehicles, the payload is affect by what accessories you fit, like a bull bar, long range tank, extra batteries etc. Another factor is the Gross Combined Mass, what the total loaded weight is of the truck and any trailer combined. Our trained sales people can help you work all this out so that you remain legal when towing or loading your truck.
What can I tow?
Very few people understand the laws when it comes to towing. All Performax trucks can tow the legal limit of 3500kg on a 50mm ball. Most Performax vehicles can tow in excess of 4500kg; however there are braking and trailering laws that must be obeyed once you exceed 3500kg. This is an area that you should only trust to an expert like a professional Performax trained sales person. We need to ensure that the vehicle you are looking at is up to the job, and that you are driving on the correct licence.
Will I need a brake controller to tow my trailer?
Performax trucks usually come with a standard electric brake controller unit built in. However we cannot guarantee that this system will be compatible your trailer as there are many different brands and operating systems sold. It is the buyers responsibility to ensure the system works with their trailer, and if not fit the appropriate system. Some trailers also use electric over hydraulic, typically boat trailers and off-road caravans, these may not work and may require an additional unit to be fitted at the buyers expense. Australian Federal Law also requires any trailer rated over 4500kg to me fitted with an ADR Approved air brake system, and the tow unit requires an approved system too. This system will not work with electric brakes.
You must need a fuel tanker to follow you around with those big trucks, what is their fuel economy like?
Although there are no standards for fuel economy on vehicles in this category, we do have plenty of feedback from customers and from our own experiences. Due to the high torque levels of the Performax Trucks, and the fact they are purpose built to tow, they are capable of outstanding fuel economy. And in fact can embarrass many common brands of 4x4’s and still manage to maintain safe highway speeds all day.
What are the service intervals??
Performax International recommends all their trucks are serviced every 6 months or ten thousand kilometers, which ever comes first. This is also a requirement of our warranty. Regular servicing not only keeps your vehicle in top operating condition, it also ensures that your vehicle is kept safe and has all the latest computer updates.
Where do I get my car serviced when I am travelling?
Performax International has a dealer network right around Australia, so you can plan your travels knowing you can get a service when needed by trained professional technicians. In the even you are not travelling or working in an area where we do not have a dealer, we do also have approved repair centres; just call our friendly service staff to find out who is approved in your areas.
What happens if my car breaks down in the middle of nowhere?
All Performax new vehicles come with 4 year Roadside Service Coverage that can help you with breakdowns, towing, emergency accommodation, and car hire and more. Please see your Road Side policy for full conditions and details.
Can I service my own car?
Performax International and its approved Dealers and repair centers are all trained professionals which know how to work on your new truck. We would prefer that you entrust your vehicle to these professionals- as warranty may become void.
What is Adblue? Can I remove it?
Adblue or Urea is a new emissions additive commonly found in modern diesel vehicles to help them meet stringent international environmental regulations. It also helps the vehicle to operate more efficiently. This fluid is vital to the operation of your vehicle and it cannot be removed or your vehicle will not only fail to operate reliably, it will also void your warranty. Removal of any emissions system is also a Federal Offence and carries with it very high penalties. Adblue normally only requires filling when it is low, at which point the vehicle will give a 1000km warning allowing plenty of time to refill. This product does have a shelf life so is best let run down as required. A typical truck can run for 5000 to 10,000kms on a tank, depending on operating conditions.
Who will insure these things?
A lot of insurance companies will insure them, however due to their value and intended uses, your rating with those companies may be taken into account. Performax International recommends specialist insurers like RYNO Insurance.
I need a Five Star ANCAP rating for mine sites, do your vehicles comply?
Five Star ANCAP ratings only apply to vehicles with a GVM of less than 3500kgs, there is no valid testing for trucks over 4500kgs so there for no rating possible. These vehicles do not require an ANCAP rating to be allowed onto any mine sites in Australia, however depending on the mine sites, they may still require some sort of approved ROPS. We recommend you check with the individual site that you plan on operating in.
Are parts available?
Yes, like any other car manufacturer in this country, we carry normal consumable parts required for servicing and maintenance of your vehicle. Any part that is not commonly requested can be air freighted in just as fast as most parts can be sent around Australia.
Can I get accessories for my truck?
Yes! Almost all accessories commonly fitted to other 4x4’s can also be supplied and fitted to a Performax vehicle. Whether it be a bull bar with driving lights, a canopy or long range tank, we have got you covered.
What is the essence of the Performax Engineering Department?
At the forefront of the Australian conversion industry Performax International are driven to success through Engineering excellence. This being in an industry where small manufactures provide products into the market which lack the quality and durability of the original OEM product. Performax International go to great lengths to ensure that this is not the case. At the forefront of this is a highly skilled engineering team which possess skills to achieve results equal to and better than OEM products.
Our ability to achieve this is determined through these goals:
- Providing fit and finishing of interior products equal to and better than OEM.
- Proving structural durability equal to and better than OEM.
- Maintaining steering feel to equal the driving experience provided through OEM.
This is evidenced through:
- The investment of high pressure injection moulded dash and dash components on the Gen3 Chevrolet Silverado. Providing a fit and finish equal to and better that the OEM product.
- The investment of high pressure injection moulded interior parts on the F-Series product.
- Undertaking of FEA analysis on structural components to ensure the durability of the product under severe loading conditions.
- The use of new 3D printing technology to improve the efficiency of the prototyping phase.
The engineering department are continually improving the product put to market afterthe conversion process. In doing so we are able to achieve Performax International’s mission statement, “To sustain and build on our dominance in the global conversion market in terms of brand image, product supremacy and ownership experience”.
Our Company’s ‘PILLAR’ Values
Personal and purposeful; every person, every action working together as a whole in pursuit of achieving the goals of the company. The PILLAR values of Performax International are demonstrated by individuals and teams, throughout the organisation,a force for excellence, and an inspiration for innovation.loyal; faithfulness to commitments and/or obligations.
Beginning in 1989, the company has forged an internationally recognised reputation as a market leader through its commitment to integrity, continual improvement and a focus on customer service
Performax International have partnered with Aussie Guard to provide you with the highest quality after market care for your new vehicle.
Aussie Guard was founded eight years ago by Daryn Walker who has over twenty years of motor industry experience. 100% Aussie owned and operated, Aussie Guard customers enjoy a boutique network customer service providers, large enough to matter and small enough to care. The Aussie Guard line of products are simple to use and apply but superior in performance and durability. Our products, all of them, come with a lifetime warranty. We are that confident in them and their quality.
For more information on the products available and a full list of pricing please contact your local after market care specialist.
At Performax International we always have happy customers taking deliveries of their brand new vehicles!Have a look at the gallery below to see just some of our happy truck owners.
Performax International is at the forefront of re-engineering/conversion technology, and committed to continual improvement and innovation. With the standard of American vehicles continually improving in terms of finish, quality and technology, Performax is setting the pace in the re-engineering market place.
With our highly skilled research and development teams working closely with our engineering/compliance teams, the quality of finish with every Performax vehicles is second to none.
Every component and system of every vehicle is carefully researched, designed, installed and tested to ensure the original equipment manufacturer finish.
Re-engineering technology used at Performax
Scan arm and CAD
This tool allows engineers to scan an item out of any vehicle, for example a dashboard section or air-conditioning vent, producing a 3D representation.
The file can then be modified using the CAD program to suit a right-hand-drive application. The parts can then be produced and tested for fit and finish.
3D Plastic Printer
Performax 3D printer gives engineers the ability to “print” a prototype for initial testing. After rigorous testing, the part is finalised, its specifications sent to suppliers for production.
Water Transfer Station
If an internal component of a vehicle needs that creative finish such as wood grain, carbon fibre or polished aluminium (to name only a few), technicians use the water transfer station. Performax is the only re-engineering workshop in Australia to use such technology in-house.
Electric Mustang Steering Rack
When the Ford Mustang came equipped with an electric steering system for the first time in 2011, the Performax research and development team were presented with a challenge to create a right-hand-drive solution. They successfully produced a solution which can now be replicated in all models of Mustangs.
Performax International creates right-hand-drive dashboards and plastic trims using injected moulding techniques, exactly the same method used by original vehicle manufacturers. Molten UV Stable plastic is pumped into the mould under pressure and baked in an oven. There is no shrinkage with this process ensuring a factory look, fit and finish every day.
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